Water treatment is the target-oriented change in water quality. In general, the process steps are described with which raw water is treated into drinking water.
It essentially includes two groups of treatment:
- Removal of substances from the water (e. g. cleaning, sterilization, de-ironing, softening, desalination)
- Addition of substances and adjustment of water parameters (e. g. dosage, adjustment of pH- value, dissolved ions and conductivity)
Different methods can be distinguished:
- Physical methods (e.g., aeration, atomization, sedimentation, flotation, vacuum processes, thermal effects)
- Mechanical methods (e.g., separation of contaminants from the wastewater by rakes, sieves, filters)
- Chemical processes (e. g. oxidation, disinfection, flocculation, decarbonation, ion exchange, activated carbon (adsorption), osmosis)
- Biological processes (biochemical oxidation, sludge digestion, anaerobic wastewater treatment)
- Thermal processes (e. g. distillation, evaporation, crystallization)
These methods are also used in various combinations, depending on the water structure and the objective. For example, technical water (feedwater from power plants, chemical processes, mixing water for metalworking fluids, pharmaceutics) often require a very extensive change in the water properties, e. g. by desalination, reverse osmosis, special dosages, degassing and much more.
In order to obtain optimum performance parameters from a metalworking fluid of the new generation, e.g. increased service life and the prevention of corrosion by salts in the raw water, a complete demineralization of the mixing water is essential.
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